Editor's note: With the 50th anniversary of The Wilderness Act being marked Wednesday, it's a time for both celebration and, in some areas, continued waiting for lands to be designated. Dolores Kong and her husband, Dan Ring, looked at the state of pending wilderness in Maine and how it could help Atlantic puffins. This article originally appeared in their blog, Acadia National Park on My Mind.
People love puffins so much that visitors to Acadia National Park often ask rangers where they can see them, even though they are too far from shore to be visible.
It seems Atlantic puffins are to Maine what polar bears are to Alaska.
When President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act on Sept. 3, 1964, the United States became the first country in the world to define and protect wilderness. Among the wilderness definitions embodied in the act: ââ¦an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.â
In Maine, from Acadia National Park to the North Woods, from Kittery to Caribou, and even along the so-called 100-Mile Wilderness of the Appalachian Trail, thereâs very little federally designated wilderness, a fraction of 1 percent.
Since 2005, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed that 13 Maine coastal islands, some near Acadia, become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, the strongest form of federal protection. This would better preserve some puffin habitat, but Congress has yet to act.
So many visitors to Acadia National Park ask about these seabirds with the colorful beak, that the Park Service lists âWhere can I see puffins?â as the first frequently asked wildlife question. Sorry! Puffins are too far offshore to be seen from Mount Desert Island. Visitors must take a boat out to the right islands, at the right time of year, according to the National Audubon Society and the Maine Birding Trail.
Yet despite the publicâs love for puffins, Congress hasnât passed the Maine Coastal Islands Wilderness Act (H.R. 1808), reintroduced in 2013 by Rep. Michael Michaud and Rep. Chellie Pingree to help better protect the puffins and other wildlife found on the islands.
Although Atlantic puffins are not endangered, they are listed as threatened in Maine, the southern edge of their habitat. Puffins, which had been hunted for 300 years for their eggs, meat and feathers, usually donât breed until they are at least 5 years old, and lay only one egg a year.
Warmer ocean temperatures the last two summers affected puffinsâ ability to find food for chicks, but the 2013-2014 cold winter meant greater breeding success this summer. That was the update recently shared by Project Puffin, although as Acadia National Park Community noted in its Facebook posting, itâs âgreat newsâ¦at least for the time being.â
Since 1964, more than 700 wilderness areas have been designated across the country, most of them out west or in Alaska, as starkly illustrated in a map in the September issue of National Geographic magazine about the 50th Anniversary of the Wilderness Act.
Some federal protection for Atlantic puffins already exists with 48 islands part of the Maine Coastal Islands National Wildlife Refuges. But the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which runs the refuges, has recommended since 2005 that extra wilderness protection be extended to 13 of those islands. The Wilderness Society and other groups have listed these islands as a priority, especially with this year marking the 50th Anniversary of the Wilderness Act. The bill to create the Maine Coastal Islands Wilderness remains stuck on Capitol Hill.
If you have a passion for puffins, whether they are visible from Acadia or not, perhaps there is no better way to mark the 50th Anniversary of the Wilderness Act than to âAdoptâ the Maine Coastal Islands National Wildlife Refuges through a Wilderness Society program; donate to Audubonâs Project Puffin; participate in one of the many 50th Anniversary activities being held around the country; or contact your US Senator and Representative and urge passage of the Maine Coastal Islands Wilderness Act.