Recent comments

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    The Jefferson quote above is taken completely out of context. Here's the entire quote. Some important omissions:

    . . .we wish them to live in peace with all nations as well as with us, and we have no intention ever to strike them or to do them an injury of any sort, unless first attacked or threatened. . .

    Let them then continue quiet at home, take care of their women & children, & remove from among them the agents of any nation persuading them to war, and let them declare to us explicitly & categorically that they will do this: in which case, they will have nothing to fear from the preparations we are now unwillingly making to secure our own safety.

    Jefferson uses the word "war" nine times in the full quote. Jefferson wanted peace with the Indians, not war. But if any tribes were persuaded by other nations (here Jefferson refers to England) to declare war on the United States, those tribes would suffer the consequences (Jefferson is saber-rattling). Jefferson was certainly not talking about the elimination of all Indians here. And Jefferson certainly didn't intend to eliminate every American Indian.

    As for not allowing trained, "bona fide" historians do history . . . that's appalling. How many NPT readers, if the topic were switched to global warming, would argue that even though there is a broad consensus among scientists that climate change is happening, that we ought to ignore those scientists, or that scientists are "distorting" global warming?

  • It’s Good to be the President When You Visit Gettysburg National Military Park   6 years 3 weeks ago

    I usually enjoy reading your blog entries, but what the heck is your problem with the President getting an advance tour of this precious national treasure? I guarantee that every President gets this type of privilege, whether you are a supporter of that President or not. And, I also guarantee that if you were a supporter of the sitting President, this article wouldn't even have appeared. It's just this type of inane, snarky, sarcastic sniping a la The Daily Show and The Colbert Report that continues to snuff out any real discourse or cohesion in this country, and I fear our young people have largely learned to deal with these matters ONLY with this mindset. You, and we, are better than this. I'm not a major proponent of Bush, but I also am not a proponent of this constant disrespect and childish rancor shown to our leaders. If it was Clinton or Obama or McCain or Nader or whomever that was currently our President, I'd have no problem with this type of "special treatment".

  • Yellowstone National Park Reporting Bullish Visitation   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Proving that Europeans, who are used to paying VERY high gas prices, are finding gasoline, as well as everything else, a bargain in America. The weak dollar has made it so. We have had our turn when, no doubt, there were many Parisian residents commenting about how they hardly heard a French voice at the Eifel Tower.
    As a long time resident of the Yellowstone area who was unable to visit the Park much this summer, I still find the Park Service numbers curious because of the fact that almost every single friend or family member who HAS visited this summer, has commented about how much SMALLER the crowds seemed compared to previous years! I have heard it over and over, from people who vist the park constantly, and have for years.
    One friend suggested that the Park Service has altered the way that they count visitors. He said that in the past they used to count only vehicles, and extrapolate an average per vehicle, while now they actually count people in the vehicles. Another jokingly suggested that they use the "Top Box Office" method used by the movies. Count the money and decide that "The Dark Knight" is the number two box office champ of all time, when in reality it is like thirtieth when adjusted for inflation. In any case it would be interesting to find out exactly what process is used, and how it may (or may not) differ from the past.

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Jim Macdonald;

    My kudos & thanks too, Jim, for your impressive research on the Indian-policies of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Most compelling.

    Ted Clayton

  • Brucellosis Solution: Kill All Elk and Bison in Yellowstone National Park   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Jim Macdonald et al;

    We will know that the buffalo have recovered and are safe, when they take their place beside other large herbivores in the State Hunting Regulations. As the animal spreads from its present restricted locations it will become a valued & sought-after big-game species.

    Indeed, experience in Yellowstone shows that it is important to thin & control buffalo, to forestall several problems. Their instinct to form into large, dense herds makes them extra-picturesque, but it also exacerbates a range of issues that naturally arise with large grazing animals. Heavy trampling-impact, over-grazing, disease-transmission, among other challenges ... most of which can be readily ameliorated by hunting.

    I realize that many who read The National Parks Traveler are not hunters, and some oppose hunting on philosophical grounds. However, to reach the goal we all share, of expanding the habitat available to maintain or restore especially the larger species which have been excessively reduced or extirpated, it is crucial to integrate multi-purpose lands into a broader & larger habitat-management perspective. It is unrealistic to expect that as a general case, such expanded management practices will entail any Park-like ban on hunting. Indeed, hunting remains under discussion even for some Park situations.

    There is an Alaska buffalo hunt. Their herd is maintained at 400-500 head. It was established in the 1920s, in the vicinity of Delta Junction. Later (1970s), an agricultural development of some 10s of thousands of acres was created in the same area (for much the same reasons it was selected for the buffalo herd). Conflicts between the herd and the barley farmers have lead to valuable experience with the challenge of maintaining such a commanding species in the presence of economic & infrastructure assets. The Delta herd also shows that a population of Plains Buffalo can be maintained within a designated area, and not spread elsewhere. These are important precedents, for those who would like to see buffalo more-widely reintroduced.

    It may be a significant side-thread of this topic, that Alaska is actively investigating the prospect of re-introducing Wood Buffalo (extirpated there). This species is still available in Canada. They differ from Plains Buffalo in lacking the strong herding instinct. They scatter on the land, and are better-adapted to use brushy & forested habitat ('the woods'). They are also significantly larger than the Plains variety.

    It is probably worth bearing in mind that in most of the potential habitat that we have available for bison, Wood Buffalo would be a better natural bet than the Plains type, and would probably pose less of a management challenge.

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Good research Jim! We must not let bona fide historians distort or de-sanitize the rich cultural history of the great Lakota Nation...even if means using the word "genocide" to it's most appropriate means.

  • Hanna Forcing Evacuations, Closures at Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout National Seashores   6 years 3 weeks ago


    My pleasure. When I saw what had happened that day, I had to document it. What's going on down there right this minute from Hanna has to be as bad or worse.

    I hope these pictures do help others not familiar with the area to understand what so many of us have been trying to describe this summer.

  • Hanna Forcing Evacuations, Closures at Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout National Seashores   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Sad but true: Nature bats last!

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    On the issue of Washington and Jefferson, both make genocidal comments on indigenous tribes as well. Washington is often seen as less so because he chose to negotiate with tribes as sovereign nations rather than force war on them. However, for Washington, letters show this was a practical consideration more than anything bordering on respect for the tribes. Washington had promised all this land for the veterans of the Revolutionary War, but the problem was that this land was controlled by indigenous tribes. He had two choices - he could start another war or he could negotiate. He figured it would be far easier and less costly to negotiate, to take by treaty for far less blood than what could be taken by war.

    •“For I repeat it, again, and I am clear in my opinion, that policy and economy point very strongly to the expediency of being upon good terms with the Indians, and the propriety of purchasing their Lands in preference to attempting to drive them by force of arms out of their Country; which as we have already experienced is like driving the Wild Beasts of the Forest which will return as soon as the pursuit is at an end and fall perhaps on those that are left there; when the gradual extension of our Settlements will as certainly cause the Savage as the Wolf to retire; both being beasts of prey tho’they differ in shape. In a word there is nothing to be obtained by an Indian War but the Soil they live on and this can be had by purchase at less expense, and without that bloodshed, and those distresses which helpless Women and Children are made partakers of in all kinds of disputes with them.”–George Washington, Letter to James Duane, September 7, 1783,

    Jefferson was extremely hostile toward indigenous people and said outright that he would annihilate every single Native American if they attack the United States and not succumb to treaty making:

    •" ...if ever we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe we will never lay it down tilthat tribe is exterminated, or driven beyond the war they will kill some of us; But we will destroy all of -them. Adjuring them, therefore, if they wish to remain on the land which covers the bones of their fathers, to keep the peace with a people who ask their friendship without needing it, who wish to avoid war without fearing it. In war, they will kill some of us; we shall destroy all of them.”–Thomas Jefferson, “To the Secretary at War [Henry Dearborn],”August 28, 1807,

    And, as has been noted, Lincoln and T. Roosevelt were not any better.

    It's not for any of us to say what the Lakota might do with Mt. Rushmore, but I cringe every time I have seen the monument. It must be the ultimate branding of the conquest of this country over the land that I can imagine. I guess it would be like putting a temple to James Polk in the Grand Canyon.

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • Yellowstone National Park Reporting Bullish Visitation   6 years 3 weeks ago

    I think we need to remember that while gas prices here are high, they're at least half of what the Europeans pay at home, so that alone is quite a savings for them. That, plus the weak dollar, has made American vacations -- and SUVs -- very affordable for them this year.

  • Yellowstone National Park Reporting Bullish Visitation   6 years 3 weeks ago

    To add to the anecdotal evidence, I spent two weeks this summer as a volunteer host at the Museum of the National Park Ranger at Norris in Yellowstone. I was stunned by the number of foreign visitors who came to the musuem. I regularly heard French and German, some Spanish, and several unknown languages, probably among them Dutch, spoken on almost every day. It reminded me of several stops at Mather Point in Grand Canyon during which I was sure that I was the only native English speaker at the overlook.

    Rick Smith

  • Hanna Forcing Evacuations, Closures at Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout National Seashores   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Thanks for sharing the pictures, Dap. Helps put things in context.

  • Yellowstone National Park Reporting Bullish Visitation   6 years 3 weeks ago

    we were simply shocked last week by the huge, huge numbers of SUVs driving through Yellowstone, presumably a great number being rental cars.

    Same experience for us when we visited in early August. That's one of the reasons I can't get myself to accept the gas-price theories of visitation decline. In all of the National Parks we visited it was bumper-to-bumber RV's with a lot of SUV's thrown in. Compared to my last trip out west in the 90's, it seems the amount of RV's has exploded. I think a lot of people complain about gas, but I wonder how many actually change their habits.

    At Artists Point in Yellowstone, Anglophones were a minority - and a relatively small one at that! German definitely carried the day, with a hefty dose of French. My wife and I were playing a game of seeing how far we'd have to walk before hearing the next English words. Out of the many hundreds of people we encountered in our 15 minutes there, I'd say a liberal estimate would be 20% were English-speaking. Anecdotal, to be sure, but it's too universally noticed not to point to a trend.

    -Kirby.....Lansing, MI

  • Hanna Forcing Evacuations, Closures at Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout National Seashores   6 years 3 weeks ago

    These are 2 turtle nest enclosures on Ramp 49 to the SW in Frisco, NC. Pictures were taken ~9:30AM on Labor Day Monday, just after high tide. Had to run along the toe of the dune as the beach was a salt river. The smaller in the foreground in not in its hatch window, while the larger one is. I don't know what this type of repeated flooding means to the eggs, but I've read recently that rain storms can drown them.

    Looks like Hannah's landfall coincided with low tide, so any damage will be minimalized somewhat. South beach should still see the worst of it, being a south facer.

    These pictures show just how volatile even such small weather event can be in this part of the world. Just imagine what such overwashes mean to bird nests. 2008 has actually been a pretty calm year, until just recently.

    Sorry if these pictures come in very large. This was my first try at link-uploading photos.

  • Big Bend National Park: Is It Ready For A Mountain Bike Trail?   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Ted et al,

    I just don't know enough about the topography of the proposed trail sites to weigh in on the width issue. I know of a number of state parks that have narrow multi-use trails, including some trails in the GW National Forest in Maryland and Virginia (not a park, of course), and most of the state parks permit bikes on the trails provided there's been no rain in the previous 48 hours (a good rule). On such trails I worry more about horses than anything else. As someone noted earlier, the dangers are quite real.

    As for the fun of MTB being in the adrenaline high, I agree in part -- nothing like a screaming downhill. That said, some of the most fun I have biking comes from a nice rolling ride through the spectacular scenery just as the sun starts to drop or rise. Red Rocks in Vegas and Saguaro near Tuscon come to mind. And as I get older, it's likely that that kind of fun will be more and more in my future (sigh).

    I do think that there's merit to the slippery slope concern. I agree it's a logical fallacy in a vacuum, and I also agree that it is a big leap from a bicycle to a 4-stroke, but stranger things have happened. But the park systems rely in part on serious people who care about the parks (such as those represented here), and I feel safe in assuming that such persons would be vigilant for any such leaps.

    That's really the thrust of the issue for me: anytime you post rules in the parks you rely to a large extent on the goodwill and respect of the public to ensure compliance. My own experience in this regard has been quite good -- for every irresponsible or thoughtless person there is a dozen who are there to stop the damaging behavior or notify the rangers. And, not to be a polyanna, but part of me likes relying on that -- yet another reason why I love the parks.

    What a neat site -- if only the dialogue in DC were this civil and substantive ...

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Whether or not one chooses the word genocide to describe the actions of the European settlers, traders, politicians, Indian Agents, etc. is a moot point. The evidence contained in a multitude of historical records is fairly clear regarding the knowing behavior of certain groups who sought to gain an advantage in the American continent. Smallpox was not a "minor" cause, albeit the intentional trading in disease-laden blankets, robes, etc. may have been responsible for a fraction of the deaths to Native peoples. Just by virtue of interaction between Europeans and Natives, the former of which had developed a demonstrated resistance to the virus after many long decades of exposure, the latent virus was, inadvertently or not, transmitted from white immigrants to the indigenous peoples who previous had no record of infestation, and thereby were as vulnerable to a massive, highly contagious outbreak as the current population in this country would be today. Genocide, if you prefer to confine the definition to an intent to eliminate a specific group of people, was accomplished quite effectively, with some tribes experiencing a death rate as high as 90%, based on the best information available as recorded by the Native people during the 17th-19th centuries. The artwork of the time clearly indicates the deaths of numerous people inflicted with the tell-tale "body rash" attributable to one of three sources; smallpox, measles and plague. Any one of these vectors would have been sufficient to devastate a population with little or no genetic resistance. But again, if you confine the definition to "intent", then need you look beyond the Trail of Tears, the Navaho Death March, Sand Creek, Wounded Knee (although the initiation of hostilities in that instance is debatable, pending the source), and other instances in Minnesota, Arizona, California, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, etc. etc. etc. to distinguish a pronounced pattern of systematic hostility driven solely by the desire to acquire valuable lands for mineral and timber exploitation, agricultural "development" and the ever popular political gains to be derived from an expansion of settlement?

  • Big Bend National Park: Is It Ready For A Mountain Bike Trail?   6 years 3 weeks ago


    You raise a very good point:

    "I'm wondering if trail co-existence is even possible in some areas, or if biking should only be pursued where there is adequate space to build two sets of trails. It's a very interesting point you make, but I still have to say that it deserves serious consideration in those parks [b]where space permits[/]." (emph. added)

    You're right - on moderate topography it is relatively practical to build wide tracks, without extensive "road-building". Big Bend might be such a place. Easy terrain also lets us use multiple routes, 'wherever', almost at will (perhaps allowing for separate walking & biking trails.

    But in rugged country, there is often only one route that can be used, and to make 60 inch track-bed on steep slopes would involve heavy engineering. Indeed, it is common to see evidence along Olympic Nat'l Park trails, that even the original 18 inch tread was excess for the conditions.

    (Mike - I think a possible/partial antidote to 5-foot tracks might be to make bike-trails one-way. Then bikes don't have to have 'clearance-width' when they meet.)

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    After coming back a few days later to read the other comments and opinions posted, I find it so tiresome that there is an academic argument taking place about semantics, and although it is important to prove points, I think it is beneficial to stretch beyond academia (and I am an academic) in order to find a new way of thinking about an issue. I do appreciate that people are commenting- this is a discussion that is quite overdue. People cannot be expected to agree on the subtleties of language and its uses and abuses, but it seems perhaps that this is a distraction. The fact is, word it how you must, that the US government and the european peoples who settled here early on, made some serious and grave errors in judgment and action that have caused great harm to all concerned, including the settler's descendents! What can the US do in the present that will show respect and an attempt at amends to the Native Americans for this? I believe Ted mentioned ANSCA. I would like to hear what Native American organizations think would be helpful in amending the harm done.

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    anyone who thinks American Indians didn't suffer from genocide is ignorant or lying

    Quite the opposite. The ones who have done the most research on the Native American history are the ones who don't subscribe to labeling 500 years of European/American/American Indian interaction simply as "genocide". Again, most historians do not use this term to describe the complex interactions that took place in North America.

    We ought to look at the subject dispassionately and consider the evidence. Barky, I respect your contributions to NPT, but your emotional response demonstrates why we ought to be careful when using morally loaded vocabulary.

    Jim, I'm glad to see we agree that the US government has no business in the Black Hills. This is the crux of the issue.

    Beamis, I couldn't agree with you more. I think giving the Black Hills back to the Sioux would accomplish the ends you described, and I think Washington and Jefferson, two of the humblest presidents we've had, would applaud them.

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Sorry for putting it so bluntly, but anyone who thinks American Indians didn't suffer from genocide is ignorant or lying. I can't even imaging that anyone in this day and age can believe such nonsense.

    That one poster has so infuriated me, I find myself incapable of reasonably discussing the topic at hand. I will have to return later to do so.


    My travels through the National Park System:

  • Hanna Forcing Evacuations, Closures at Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout National Seashores   6 years 3 weeks ago

    I just left Frisco NC at 9:30 AM 9/5/08, with Hannah on my heels. She turned a 9 day vacation into a 7 day event. Conditions were rapidly deteriorating.

    Beach closures for storms, while apparently a new idea, is a good one. Periods over overwash at times of high tide can take the unexperienced by surprise, and can actually strand pedestrians and drivers both until the tide drops.

    I would seriously expect most, if not all of the unhatched turtle nests will be compromised or destroyed by this storm, no matter its intensity/category. Seas ran high on Labor Day Monday and again for 3 days afterward due to the passing of a cold frontal boundary. For a minimum of 3 days worth of high tide cycles, any nest not high on the dune was underwater. Sea/tide level had not yet reached normal status as of 9/4, my last day on the beach. 4-6' of storm surge is expected from Hanna, which may cause total dune overwash in many areas.

    Forecast is for up to major beach erosion, and my weather-eye would agree with that after witnessing the much above-normal high tides during the last week. Good luck to all still in that area, turtles included.


  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    I really think that Washington and Jefferson would cringe to know that their faces are carved in stone on a remote South Dakota mountain. As for the other two I wouldn't give one hoot if the sinister and insane megalomaniac Teddy Roosevelt and his dictatorial forbear in Constitutional abuse, "Honest" Abe, were both blasted from the face of this ridge in a solemn purging ceremony broadcast on national TV.

    The whole rotten edifice smells to high heaven of state worship which the founding fathers knew was a dangerous and slippery slope towards that evil plague of the Old World: idolatry. To hell with Mt. Rushmore, it was comic when it was built and is now nothing more than a tragic reminder of being ruled by seemingly larger than life masters in DC. With war looming and financial collapse creeping ever closer upon the national horizon it would be a fitting break with the past to pulverize this monstrosity into dust as a show of good will towards all those peoples that this nation has aggrieved and offended with its blustery arrogance and simple minded nationalism.

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Frank, we will have to agree to disagree for now - because I think there is plenty of evidence to suggest that everything that happened does meet the accepted definition(s) of the word. Ward Churchill may otherwise be unpopular, but the case he makes in the long essay in his work A Little Matter of Genocide is very convincing, and you'll find that for all of Churchill's needless hyperbole, he makes a very scholarly case connecting what happened throughout history to the accepted definitions of the term genocide.

    I don't give much credit to historians, who think by virtue of being historians, that they are therefore justified in making moral judgments about what actually happened for better or for worse. The same historians excuse slave owning founding fathers and say we need to make moral judgments based on the times and cut people some slack. We don't need to be historians to see the history and apply it to the definition; we certainly don't need to be historians to see what happened and to see that it was wrong on every level - whatever word we happen to give it. I would like to say on point 3 that it's pernicious to treat the Holocaust as the protype genocide of which nothing else could compare. There are some who would argue that the Holocaust is the only genocide that there was and has ever been, which would make the word "genocide" a completely useless word. Of course, there are horrors of the Holocaust that are unique in history and have never been repeated, but that's not what genocide means.

    As for the rest of what you said, genocide aside, I agree wholeheartedly that the United States has no business with the Black Hills, but as those who really know me know, I don't believe the United States has any business being anywhere. I guess that I haven't been thrown in prison for saying that - perhaps because I still pay my taxes - suggests that there is some measure of hope. But, if you read accounts of what happened in the Twin Cities and in Denver during the two conventions, you'll wonder how far we are removed from all dissent being squashed in this country. We all in some sense have no business being where we are; I guess the question is what we can do now. Even when it comes to the Lakota, it's complicated because there is a divide between the traditionalists and the tribal government. So, instead of working within the stark borders that people set up, we need to figure out instead how to build community from the ground up. Perhaps, that simple and seemingly harmless kind of radicalism that I advocate is one reason my harsher words about this country (and the holy NPS included) are allowed to be safely ignored. Without community, we have no power.

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • Big Bend National Park: Is It Ready For A Mountain Bike Trail?   6 years 3 weeks ago


    Too big of a leap? See Yellowstone and snowmobiles, Pictured Rocks and Cape Lookout and PWCs, Big Cypress and off-road vehicles. I'm sure there are other examples, but that's a pretty good start.

  • Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them   6 years 3 weeks ago

    Jim, on this issue, I'll agree to disagree. But yours is the minority viewpoint among historians:

    While no mainstream historian denies that death and suffering were unjustly inflicted by a number of Europeans upon a great many American natives, most historians argue that genocide, which is a crime of intent, was not the intent of European colonization while in America. Historian Stafford Poole wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened in the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them. It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning, but to use it in this context is to cheapen both the word itself and the appalling experiences of the Jews and Armenians, to mention but two of the major victims of this century."

    Therefore, most mainstream scholars tend not to use the term "genocide" to describe the overall depopulation of American natives. However, a number of historians, rather than seeing the whole history of European colonization as one long act of genocide, do cite specific wars and campaigns which were arguably genocidal in intent and effect. Usually included among these are the Pequot War (1637) and campaigns waged against tribes in California starting in the 1850s.

    More on the genocide debate on Wikipedia. (Keep in mind that David Stannard was the loudest voice behind the genocide charge, and Stannard's Ph.D. is in American Studies, not history. Stannard is not considered to be a mainstream historian.)

    I recommend reading renown Native American historian James Axtell, who wrote Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America. On pages 261 to 263, Axtell details three major problems with using "genocide" to describe the interactions between American Indian tribes and Europeans:

    1. "...'genocide' is too loosely employed whenever an historical European kills or even contributes to the death of an Indian, in total disregard of the accepted definition of the word."

    2. ". . . it is historically inaccurate as a description of the vast majority of encounters between Europeans and Indians."

    3. "The final problem with 'genocide" as a description of, or even analogy to, the post-Columbian loss of Indian life is that the moral onus it tires to place on the European colonists, equating them with the Nazi S.S, is largely misdirected an inappropriate."

    I hope you get a chance to read this scholarly book; it will undoubtedly answer your call for evidence for the above three claims.

    In the meantime, what did you think of the other aspects of my comments (not including the "genocide" debate)?