Recent comments

  • Olympic National Park Ready for Wolves?   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I think wolves are great. If kept in check they do good things for their environment. But it sounds like at least one of the people in that meeting have their heads in the clouds when it comes to how "wild", wild wolves really are. These are not the neighbor's chocolate lab down the street, they are amazing hunting and killing machines. All they want to do is eat meat, livestock or wildlife, and make little wolves and given the right habitat they can do both very well. Look at Idaho for example. Wolves have boomed there in the last few years and are still booming and now Idaho is trying to legally allow hunters to control the wolf population. I would venture to say that most if not all of the pro wolf people at that meeting are anti hunting, but the best way to control over-expanding wolf populations is to allow hunters to harvest them in carefully controlled numbers. I am all for wolves being reintroduced, but the people near Olympic Nat. Park need to understand what these animals are, wild beasts, and not a cuddly dog who plays fetch.

  • Olympic National Park Ready for Wolves?   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I suppose you wouldn't want the wolves munching on the fishers... but nice to see the effort is still on track. I have started seeing more coyotes here in the Baltimore/DC area -- it's very exciting. Bring in your kitty cats for the evening folks!

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 31 weeks ago

    My point is that over the longterm, this is no way to solve this problem (and it's actually no way to solve any law enforcement problem). There's posters all over my apartment complex to "report suspicious activity." There are two freaking plain clothes police officers living in my building, an attempt to intimidate and scare residents. Even if I see something suspicious, I am not going to report it. There's almost undoubtedly nothing good that will come of it except the continued use of harrassment to drive fear (even if they happen to catch a problem bear - ahem, I mean suspicious person).

    In this case, the report was ignored until it was deemed a problem bear, and that leads to the death of the bear. By the time we reach a point where a sign is being posted to warn people of bears, where a chronicle of incidents is being reported, can we trust law enforcement to deal with what is essentially a cultural problem? There is no "suspicious activity" that is worth the fear and persecution that people face, especially people of color and those who don't speak English; there is no reason that bear management should essentially be a law enforcement issue (and however they mask it, that's what it is). --it that way, I'm also responding to posts above.

    I was also not stereotyping you; I was trying to explain why I could understand why your report was stereotyped and how it would be reasonable to do that. Whatever the policy is, the individual ranger is going to be as cynical as anyone. The stereotype here is actually the reverse - that the person asked to carry out a policy is identical with those putting out the policy. Just as you and your group were people on a trail who took good precautions around bears, as opposed to most (not all) who get mauled and should not be identified with the larger culture of stupidity, the ranger is in the same position of having to figure out whether to put hikers into a frenzy because of an individual bear report (and in the Tetons, where there are fewer trails, black bear sightings are quite common - for instance, I've never been on the Cascade Canyon trail without some report somewhere). Anyhow, the point is to say that the larger cultural problem points the way to the solution. By the time we are at rangers posting signs and trying to discern your group from everyone else, it's too late. That bear is already in trouble (which is to say that any bear is already in trouble). We're not going to be able to help that bear, (only good news is that there probably is very little that needs to be done to help the hikers, who probably won't be mauled, and should already assume that they are in bear country). So, informed hikers like yourself are better off organizing educational events, working to change the culture for the future. Instead, we have a society that expects the Park Service to fix all the ills and be responsible for doing so. Frankly, they do about as good a job as anyone should expect under the circumstances. Their mistakes have been chronicled and their deficiencies noted (by me among others) - so much so that I believe we have to re-conceive the way we view parks and the entire "management" philosophy.

    I just want to see people empower themselves - not just on the trail - but before people are on the trail. In the end, a cultural change will be much more helpful in "bear management" than making this a safety and law enforcement situation. That's the point.

    And, because of incidents like this, you know it makes me - perhaps for very different reasons - less likely to report a bear sighting. It isn't that you weren't taken seriously; it's that you might be. And, when you are, the tendency of people in law enforcement is to overreact. We have far too many dead bears this year in and around Grand Teton. What's worse, we have too much additional sensationalization (that is magnified by those who share the stories that are reported). All of this won't help until we do more. In fact, I'm thinking of organizing an event myself. The last two years, I've organized events around Columbus Day to talk about genocide and imperialism, to inform people about the legacy of Euroamerican expansion. I probably can't do that this year because I'll have a newborn. What I can do, though, is talk about bears and hiking. Things are even worse here on the East coast when it comes to that. It is up to us to combat the myths that lead people like you (Randy) to not be taken seriously, even when you do exactly what they tell you to do, as well as those that lead others to be taken too seriously (who is that funny-looking man in the apartment complex?).

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • Successful Search in Rocky Mountain National Park   6 years 31 weeks ago

    No wonder he seemed lost. From the Longs Peak Trailhead, the twosome would have started up the main trail. At a trail intersection, the companion probably zigged to the right toward the Boulder Field and on toward Mt. Lady Washington, while Mt. Everhard lagged behind and then zagged to the left and ended on the trail to Chasm Lake. Mt Lady Washington itself (herself?) is a big talus-bedecked hump w/ little or no defined trail, so if the searches had been looking there, they might not even had a clue as to where to look. What a relief that both searches ended so happily.

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Randy,

    I think you make an excellent point. Lately, I've noticed that, in some parks in particular, the condition of NPS trailhead bulletin boards is pathetic. Water stained interpretive brochures. No trail information. And no updated, if any, safety advice. I'm not saying that was the case at Grand Teton. Just something I've noticed elsewhere.

    It's disappointing the ranger didn't take your report more seriously. It can be easy for park rangers to forget that many park visitors have more experience in the outdoors than they do. (I have been guilty of this myself.)

    I read an article recently about the book "Night of the Grizzlies." In short, the author concluded that the NPS was negligent because they failed to warn hikers that certain paths were used by grizzlies to get to and from a garbage dump. A couple ended up camping on this path. One hiker was killed.

    So I don't agree with what Jim implies. That bear problems are primarily the result of the stupidity and culture of park visitors. Yes, the park newsletters are chock full of safety advice. Yet, a park is a dynamic place. Hazards ebb and flow. Accidents and deaths are going to happen. But, if visitors are reporting that a certain trail is being frequented by an aggressive bear, the NPS should make an effort to warn hikers preparing to hike that particular trail. At the very least, your report to that ranger needed to be documented so that a pattern a bear behavior could be established.

  • Considering a Hike up Half Dome?   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I am going to climb half dome the last weekend in September. I want to be as safe as possible and get a harness and caribiners. However, I have never done such a hike that would remotely require this, so I have no idea where to start looking. All I am finding are harness for those who would do such climbs as the face of half dome. I am doing the back side. Any suggestions?

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Jim Macdonald,

    This is not my first visit to the Tetons or Yellowstone, we hike annually in Glacier, Yellowstone, Tetons and Alberta, Canada. We have always been told to "Report all Bear Sightings" to rangers or park service employees so they can keep tabs on the bears, Banff National Park even has a web-site that lists encounters. You are stereotyping all visitors in your comments. We are respectfull of all wildlife and don not agitate or feed the animals.

    We didn't continue our hike until we grouped up with another couple heading back to our cars, made lot's of noise ahead on the trail. I wasn't looking for a pat on the back from the ranger, just reporting the situation as I had been told to do on visits to other parks.

    We had hiked the prior week in Yellowstone and there were daily posts on the trailhead of bear sightings, I guess Teton Natiuonal Park Rangers do not find that necessary.

    Randy Wolf
    Phoenix, AZ

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I fully understand your sentiment that I'm either completely off my nut or some other such metaphor, and that the flatulence issue was something I invented to justify an opinion. For any and all interested parties, I suggest that your view a news article from the Associated Press, 9/12/07

    Wed Sep 12, 9:06 PM ET
    LONDON - Eating less meat could help slow global warming by reducing the number of livestock and thereby decreasing the amount of methane flatulence from the animals, scientists said on Thursday.

    I again realize that this is just one study in many of your eyes, especially since I proposed no hard data in my initial writing to substantiate my position. However, this is hardly the first paper to position itself along the lines of environmental scientists who have noted and measured (don't ask how, use your imaginations) the averages, increases and projected the trend over growing population consumptions, etc. For the full article, consult your local AP-Science website. I don't like giving links, it's almost like advertising. And I think people learn better when they work at it just a bit. Just a little more food for thought, as it were.......

    And Frank, trust me, we'll take up the whole fossil fuels issue at a more opportune time. But "Big Oil" and I aren't real happy with each other either.....especially with the advent of certain high-tech polymers that are having their patent submissions suppressed, and that would lend a dramtic reduction to our plastics consumption.
    But like I said, another time.

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 31 weeks ago

    "It is what bears do," but this situation could have avoided if people had taken the time to inform each other about bears and this bear in particular. Not all organizing is advocacy organizing. We are still combating long held cultural stereotypes about the joys of feeding animals as well as the simultaneous sensationalizing of bear attacks. As I cover Yellowstone, I read countless number of people who think they are going to some big outdoor zoo and are upset when they don't see "Yogi" (can point you to blog links if you'd like). Just yesterday, a couple thought it only appropriate that when in Yellowstone, it is only appropriate to order buffalo for dinner and then flippantly remark that the cousins outside might not like that. It's not hard to see how from those kind of cultural attitudes that we are not far from the needless death of a lot of animals - including that bison's cousin who do in fact die every year (probably unbeknownst to the recent blogger to which I am referring).

    So, yeah, the ranger can put up a sign - great. I'm skeptical that it matters. There are so many warnings, so much literature on this, so many ranger programs on this, and certainly not enough rangers to go out and put a warning out for every bear a group of tourists says is aggressive - especially when the odds of even so much as a bear mauling to happen to you are in most years several million to one (and death? - you are many times more likely to die from a terrorist attack than by a bear; that's just how rare they are).

    But, because of culture and stupidity, as well as the lack of social responsibility that people have (and understandably so in our society), bears suffer and die while people have an inordinate amount of fear and fascination. If we want to protect bears and hikers alike, we have to take on the culture aggressively that treats bears and other animals as a kind of joke. At the same time, it means attacking the tactics of the advocacy groups who use people's cultural stereotypes about wildlife to feed their own coffers (and some of these groups, I otherwise support!) Bears are bears; they might attack, in some cases, they'd like to get your food (especially when food is scarce). They aren't always not going to be aggressive. However, humans are humans, and we aren't going to want to be attacked by bears; at the same time, we don't want to see bears needlessly die. If we really believe that, let's inform each other. Let's tell each other the truth about bear attacks, put it in context, and help each other cope with the reality of our choices and the choices of bears. And, if you want to help, hold educational events in your own towns. They are very easy to put together. Find a space willing to host it (a library, a church space, an outdoor space), put out some email announcements, maybe some fliers, and inform your neighbors. If the topic is bears, I'll bet you'll get several dozen people. That's how we do this - we can't reduce this or any other situation to the understandable skepticism of a ranger at the other end of a phone. In that ranger's shoes, I can perfectly understand his snide reaction.

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • The Secret Life of Drugs in Parks   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Olympic National Park (WA)
    Multi-Year Drug Investigation Concludes With Arrests, Seizures

    On Tuesday, August 28th, investigators from an interagency narcotics enforcement team that included NPS personnel culminated an investigation of several years duration into a major drug trafficking organization operating along the northwest coast of Washington. Investigators from numerous local Olympic Peninsula agencies worked with agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the National Park Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration to make simultaneous arrests of the leaders and conspirators of this organization and execute search warrants of their residences. During these raids, the organization’s top leaders were arrested, including five illegal Mexican nationals. Over two-and-a-half pounds of crystal methamphetamine, a half pound of cocaine, a half pound of marijuana, four firearms, and more than $26,000 in cash were seized. All arrestees were transported to Tacoma, Washington, for their initial hearing and were turned over to the U.S. Marshals Service. The U.S. Attorney is considering the charges to be filed against those arrested. Another member of the organization was arrested in a traffic enforcement operation in the park on August 24th (click on “More Information” for a copy of that report). Over a half pound of marijuana, a half pound of methamphetamine and a quarter pound of cocaine were seized in that arrest. The total amount of drugs and money taken off the street on the Olympic Peninsula as a result of this investigation comes to over $40,000 in cash and several pounds of methamphetamine and marijuana. The street value of the methamphetamine alone has been placed at over $108,000. [Submitted by Barb Maynes, Public Affairs Officer]

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 31 weeks ago

    We reported this Bear to the Ranger at Jenny Lake on August 29, 2007, we had 5 hikers turned around coming towards us on the trail by the String Lake Trailhead, they had encountered the black bear and said it was aggressive towards them.

    We continued on the trail with another couple and made lot's of noise and had the bear spray ready, there were at least 4 areas of fresh bear scat on the trail towards the ranger station and ferry just south of String lake.

    My problem was with the Park Ranger when we reported the Bear sighting, after explaing the story he laughed and said, that's what bears do, they are hungry and looking for food. We reported this in hopes the rangers who at least put a warning notice up on the trail.

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 31 weeks ago

    OK, I guess I missed that last minute safety...

    Bears 14, Cowboys 2

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I would be curious to view any correlation in past years to ecological and environment data pertaining to "dry" years and the resultant effect on whatever might be considered a normal level of annual encounters between the bear population and human visitors would equate into, and I'm certain that these data are readily available. If the inference from previous studies is that "A=B", then this entire debacle should have been easily forecast and obviously avoidable. Of course, too little, too late now. I finding it rather difficult to believe that anyone with the proper E&E background would have overlooked any historical trend that would have prevented this most unfortunate massacre of the bear population.

    As far as hunting carnivorous critters, though I personally don't, I thought the widely accepted philosophy was that you'd better be certain of a kill, or pay the consequences. Nature doesn't suffer fools well, and most ceratinly doesn't tolerate incompetence in the food web. As one philosopher commented, you mess with the bull, you get the horns.....GO BEARS!!!

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 31 weeks ago

    There's more to this - apparently, the man wounded the bear, and so the portion of the Gallatin National Forest that he was in was closed off because of the dangers of a wounded grizzly bear (and they aren't absolutely sure it was a grizzly that attacked). Of course, I've got relevant stories in the newspaper on the black bears as well as this latest grizzly incident.

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Sometimes you eat the bear, sometimes he eats you!

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Another bear incident just outside the Yellowstone boundary on Sunday I believe -- some park employee was out HUNTING for black bear when a grizzly decided to go hunting for HIM. Details are on the NPS website if you're interested.

    Final score: Bears 14, Cowboys 0

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Beamis,
    So what's your take on the IPCC's finding that it's 90% likely that humans are causing/have caused observed climate changes?

    I don't think concern about global warming necessarily equates to disdain for modern life; rather, it's founded in disdain of waste and pollution and a concern for those who come after us. And it takes more than giving up one's car to "walk the walk". Fossil fuels are involved in everything we consume and use from food to plastics to telecommunications. It's virtually impossible not to consume fossil fuels in one way or another, but that shouldn't mean that anyone concerned about climate change should be labeled a hypocrite. It's about recognizing a potential problem and working to fix it from the inside; it's not about living in a cave. The system can only be changed from the inside since that is where we all operate.

    And listen, there are far greater reasons in my opinion to wean ourselves from fossil fuels other than global warming including ozone pollution, volatile chemical emissions, 45000+ deaths a year from accidents, wars over oil, oil spills, habitat destruction, and so on. If climate change, actual or possible, is the impetus for making that break, then so be it.

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 31 weeks ago

    So, when do they begin the sensible course of action......close the park until people can act responsibly? Hopefully, the winter snows will come early and often.

  • Private Party At Charlestown Navy Yard Doesn't Lack Alcohol   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I would just like to add that the parks were set aside for the benefit and enjoyement of the people. The parks were meant to be used!!
    Mather and Albright both believed in recreation first, most times at the expense of the resource!! In the begining park service shot wolves (so visitors could see more deer and elk), they fed the bears (so visitors could take their picture), they built large spacious hotels in the most pristine areas (so visitors had a comfortable place to sleep)...
    I'm sure others on this site, can think of others.
    Second, Check it out most of our historical sites have come into the park service system after they failed as private businesses. Local cities and not for private organizations expected the federal government to come in and protect their site. Why do people believe if a private organization is not making money on a site that somehow sticking a park service arrowhead on the site with no operating budget is going to turn things around??
    Well guess what the federal government doesn't have the money, the National Park Service does not have the money to continue bailing out these small nationally insignificant places.
    Why is it the park service keeps crying it doesn't have enough money to protect its 391 sites, congress keeps getting upset with the park service cuz they don't know where the money is going, but yet congress and the park service keep adding more sites to the system??
    My belief is we need to stop relying on the federal government to save all of our recreational, historical, cultural, and natural areas. Everyone from every sector needs to step up to the plate and do their part.
    And on a last note a pet peeve of mine... Law Enforcement Rangers are Police Officers, they carry federal commissions and are authorized to carry firearms, conduct investigations, and make arrests!!

  • Private Party At Charlestown Navy Yard Doesn't Lack Alcohol   6 years 31 weeks ago

    "On an earlier comment, the "guy in the yellow shirt" who stopped a visitor from entering the Navy Yard, that
    was one of the law enforcement fellows...funny they have "POLICE" on the back of their shirt..they wish..."

    From reading above it stated there was one arrest....then who arrested this guy??? I had heard it was one of Park Police Officers. I have seen them arresting drug users before.

  • Judge Orders Cross Removed from Mojave National Preserve   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Lone Hiker, I think your words ring true. Let my email be the first to say there is wisdom in what you have written.

  • Judge Orders Cross Removed from Mojave National Preserve   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Good job Kurt, you have indeed touched a common nerve.

    The cross, be it subtitled Latin or whatever, has through generations become associated with far more than just Christianity. However, in most cases, when initially viewed in virtually any landscape, the primary connotation is one of religion, which is a shame. I too hold no particular religious affiliation, but cannot say that I find this symbol offensive. If the intent of the memorial was religious or meant to inflame, as would be the cast with the broken cross, or whatever stupid symbol is currently in vogue with mideastern terror groups, then indeed removal would be the proper response. But I also agree that the obelisk, flower garden, "eternal" bunsen burner, hall of mirrors or many other alternatives would serve quite well in it's sted.

    Also, let's not make the assumption that the symbol itself represents the hypocracy of those factions that
    use(d) it for their rallying point. Purtians killed out of fear and public subjugation. Cathloics killed to spread Catholicism throughout "pagan" lands. Protestants killed too, as did Baptists, Agnostics, Mormons, Anglicans, Episcopalians, Judaists, and of course, Muslims. But the cross is also a widely accepted tribute to fallen soldiers. along with victims of drunk drivers, genocide, racism, etc. It is a symbol that honors death, strange as that sounds. Nobody needs be reminded that a certain religious leader was NOT the first nor the last nor the only human being put to death on the cross, just the most popular. But I also recall the white cross being utilized as a symbol of peace. Boy will I get e-mails on this one.

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 31 weeks ago

    Amen vink80! I could not have said it better!

    The last time that it was a widely accepted notion of science that nature was something that remains in a fixed and unchanging state was when Aristotle was tutoring a young and impressionable Alexander the Great.

    I'd like to see everyone that is so hell-fired sure that humans are causing global warming to start walking the walk. I'd like to know when you're going to give up your cars and stop using your energy consuming electronic devices and stop taking all those unnecessary treks to national parks using internal combustion power.

    Why don't we all go live in caves again and crap on the ground. This whole issue has more to do with those among us with a deep seated disdain for modern life and the supposed miseries it visits upon poor old Mother Earth. It has little to do with hard science. It has more to do with imposing restrictions on human freedom than with any concrete evidence that it will save the our sacred mother from her delinquent and thoughtless children.

    I'll make a prediction: the earth is going to get cooler in the next ten years. I mean it! The earth is going to be a colder place by 2017. Anyone willing to place a bet? I'm as confident as Julian Simon was in betting Paul Ehrlich back in 1980.

    In the meantime Al Gore needs to stop eating meat (what with all this cow farting going on) and stop traveling by Lear jet. I know, I know, he bought his carbon offsets from the officially sanctioned Church of Environmental Salvation but he really should start setting a better example for those of us who don't have access and the spare cash to tithe to such exalted and rarefied institutions.

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 31 weeks ago

    I'm not particularly enthralled with the prospects for the future either. And to Jr. Ranger, I have six of my own who I am most concerned about, but to claim that the old farts aren't doing anything and the younger generation is spearheading the movement isn't at all accurate. Maybe due to having lived through other global issues, the threat of nuclear meltdown between nations, exploding populations, dwindling resources, and other events have lead a certain segment of the population to what I refer to as a more measured response. Yes, things need to be changed, but as I mentioned, change to what degree, where, and how? First, when you're figuring on changing things globally, it can't in all praticality be done quickly. Mankinds record on our knee-jerk reactions reads like a list of the "Greatest Debacles in the History of Earth", and maybe that is something that more people need to be aware of prior to demanding instant change. Second, we as a country still tend toward this topic as a political, not social issue. Sadly, by the time attitudes change it may indeed be too late. In our system of geovernment, rarely is anything undertaken, no matter how socially important, without profits driving the equation. One possible answer is to learn how to generate billions by cleaning up our collective act, then at least the econimic engine will drive the solution to it's proper end. Lastly, I under NO circumstances suggest that cattle are solely responsible. Methane is a byproduct of numerous processes in our environment. But the study that I referred to was independently commissioned by a "non-political" entity, that is, someone OUTSIDE of this country with no agenda to follow. The numbers are quite staggering in terms of total output, and the reductive capability of this gas is not to be questioned.

    Al Gore is correct in bringing this issue to light, but was hardly the first to promote environmental change. I suggest that he also promote behavioral change, and start walking the walk as he encourages the general public to do. As a leader, you're totally ineffective unless examples are set and followed. Just ask "W"......

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 31 weeks ago

    YOU ARE ALL OVER LOOKING SOME BASIC FACTS: I AM 83yrs old --- WHEN I WAS IN GRADE SCHOOL IN PHILLIPS, MAINE I WAS TAUGHT AND SHOWN SOME BASIC THINGS ABOUT THE ICE AGE. GROOVES ON WHEELER HILL MADE BY MELTING AND MOVING GLACIERS ---- DAVIS ROCK CARRIED IN AND DROPPED BY THE GLACER. ---- AND ALL ACROSS COUNTRY THERE ARE LANDMARKS MADE BY THE ICE AGE MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO . THERE ARE HIGH WATER MARKS IN THE WESTERN DESERTS THAT SHOW THAT THE LAND WAS AT ONE TIME COVERED WITH WATER ----- THERE ARE FOSSILS THAT SHOW THE SAME THING. THERE ARE DINASAUR BONES BURIED IN VARIOUS PLACES IN THE U.S. OUR WORLD HAS AND WILL CONTINUE TO CHANGE
    LIFE HAS AND MUST CHANGE TO SURVIVE.
    THE PEOPLE EDUCATED TO SPIT OUT VOLUMES OF WORDS HAD BEST GET SOME BASIC HISTORICAL FACTS TO USE THEIR VOCABULARY.