Recent comments

  • Considering a Hike up Half Dome?   6 years 45 weeks ago

    I am going to climb half dome the last weekend in September. I want to be as safe as possible and get a harness and caribiners. However, I have never done such a hike that would remotely require this, so I have no idea where to start looking. All I am finding are harness for those who would do such climbs as the face of half dome. I am doing the back side. Any suggestions?

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 45 weeks ago

    Jim Macdonald,

    This is not my first visit to the Tetons or Yellowstone, we hike annually in Glacier, Yellowstone, Tetons and Alberta, Canada. We have always been told to "Report all Bear Sightings" to rangers or park service employees so they can keep tabs on the bears, Banff National Park even has a web-site that lists encounters. You are stereotyping all visitors in your comments. We are respectfull of all wildlife and don not agitate or feed the animals.

    We didn't continue our hike until we grouped up with another couple heading back to our cars, made lot's of noise ahead on the trail. I wasn't looking for a pat on the back from the ranger, just reporting the situation as I had been told to do on visits to other parks.

    We had hiked the prior week in Yellowstone and there were daily posts on the trailhead of bear sightings, I guess Teton Natiuonal Park Rangers do not find that necessary.

    Randy Wolf
    Phoenix, AZ

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 45 weeks ago

    I fully understand your sentiment that I'm either completely off my nut or some other such metaphor, and that the flatulence issue was something I invented to justify an opinion. For any and all interested parties, I suggest that your view a news article from the Associated Press, 9/12/07

    Wed Sep 12, 9:06 PM ET
    LONDON - Eating less meat could help slow global warming by reducing the number of livestock and thereby decreasing the amount of methane flatulence from the animals, scientists said on Thursday.

    I again realize that this is just one study in many of your eyes, especially since I proposed no hard data in my initial writing to substantiate my position. However, this is hardly the first paper to position itself along the lines of environmental scientists who have noted and measured (don't ask how, use your imaginations) the averages, increases and projected the trend over growing population consumptions, etc. For the full article, consult your local AP-Science website. I don't like giving links, it's almost like advertising. And I think people learn better when they work at it just a bit. Just a little more food for thought, as it were.......

    And Frank, trust me, we'll take up the whole fossil fuels issue at a more opportune time. But "Big Oil" and I aren't real happy with each other either.....especially with the advent of certain high-tech polymers that are having their patent submissions suppressed, and that would lend a dramtic reduction to our plastics consumption.
    But like I said, another time.

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 45 weeks ago

    "It is what bears do," but this situation could have avoided if people had taken the time to inform each other about bears and this bear in particular. Not all organizing is advocacy organizing. We are still combating long held cultural stereotypes about the joys of feeding animals as well as the simultaneous sensationalizing of bear attacks. As I cover Yellowstone, I read countless number of people who think they are going to some big outdoor zoo and are upset when they don't see "Yogi" (can point you to blog links if you'd like). Just yesterday, a couple thought it only appropriate that when in Yellowstone, it is only appropriate to order buffalo for dinner and then flippantly remark that the cousins outside might not like that. It's not hard to see how from those kind of cultural attitudes that we are not far from the needless death of a lot of animals - including that bison's cousin who do in fact die every year (probably unbeknownst to the recent blogger to which I am referring).

    So, yeah, the ranger can put up a sign - great. I'm skeptical that it matters. There are so many warnings, so much literature on this, so many ranger programs on this, and certainly not enough rangers to go out and put a warning out for every bear a group of tourists says is aggressive - especially when the odds of even so much as a bear mauling to happen to you are in most years several million to one (and death? - you are many times more likely to die from a terrorist attack than by a bear; that's just how rare they are).

    But, because of culture and stupidity, as well as the lack of social responsibility that people have (and understandably so in our society), bears suffer and die while people have an inordinate amount of fear and fascination. If we want to protect bears and hikers alike, we have to take on the culture aggressively that treats bears and other animals as a kind of joke. At the same time, it means attacking the tactics of the advocacy groups who use people's cultural stereotypes about wildlife to feed their own coffers (and some of these groups, I otherwise support!) Bears are bears; they might attack, in some cases, they'd like to get your food (especially when food is scarce). They aren't always not going to be aggressive. However, humans are humans, and we aren't going to want to be attacked by bears; at the same time, we don't want to see bears needlessly die. If we really believe that, let's inform each other. Let's tell each other the truth about bear attacks, put it in context, and help each other cope with the reality of our choices and the choices of bears. And, if you want to help, hold educational events in your own towns. They are very easy to put together. Find a space willing to host it (a library, a church space, an outdoor space), put out some email announcements, maybe some fliers, and inform your neighbors. If the topic is bears, I'll bet you'll get several dozen people. That's how we do this - we can't reduce this or any other situation to the understandable skepticism of a ranger at the other end of a phone. In that ranger's shoes, I can perfectly understand his snide reaction.

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • The Secret Life of Drugs in Parks   6 years 45 weeks ago

    Olympic National Park (WA)
    Multi-Year Drug Investigation Concludes With Arrests, Seizures

    On Tuesday, August 28th, investigators from an interagency narcotics enforcement team that included NPS personnel culminated an investigation of several years duration into a major drug trafficking organization operating along the northwest coast of Washington. Investigators from numerous local Olympic Peninsula agencies worked with agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the National Park Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration to make simultaneous arrests of the leaders and conspirators of this organization and execute search warrants of their residences. During these raids, the organization’s top leaders were arrested, including five illegal Mexican nationals. Over two-and-a-half pounds of crystal methamphetamine, a half pound of cocaine, a half pound of marijuana, four firearms, and more than $26,000 in cash were seized. All arrestees were transported to Tacoma, Washington, for their initial hearing and were turned over to the U.S. Marshals Service. The U.S. Attorney is considering the charges to be filed against those arrested. Another member of the organization was arrested in a traffic enforcement operation in the park on August 24th (click on “More Information” for a copy of that report). Over a half pound of marijuana, a half pound of methamphetamine and a quarter pound of cocaine were seized in that arrest. The total amount of drugs and money taken off the street on the Olympic Peninsula as a result of this investigation comes to over $40,000 in cash and several pounds of methamphetamine and marijuana. The street value of the methamphetamine alone has been placed at over $108,000. [Submitted by Barb Maynes, Public Affairs Officer]

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 45 weeks ago

    We reported this Bear to the Ranger at Jenny Lake on August 29, 2007, we had 5 hikers turned around coming towards us on the trail by the String Lake Trailhead, they had encountered the black bear and said it was aggressive towards them.

    We continued on the trail with another couple and made lot's of noise and had the bear spray ready, there were at least 4 areas of fresh bear scat on the trail towards the ranger station and ferry just south of String lake.

    My problem was with the Park Ranger when we reported the Bear sighting, after explaing the story he laughed and said, that's what bears do, they are hungry and looking for food. We reported this in hopes the rangers who at least put a warning notice up on the trail.

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 45 weeks ago

    OK, I guess I missed that last minute safety...

    Bears 14, Cowboys 2

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 45 weeks ago

    I would be curious to view any correlation in past years to ecological and environment data pertaining to "dry" years and the resultant effect on whatever might be considered a normal level of annual encounters between the bear population and human visitors would equate into, and I'm certain that these data are readily available. If the inference from previous studies is that "A=B", then this entire debacle should have been easily forecast and obviously avoidable. Of course, too little, too late now. I finding it rather difficult to believe that anyone with the proper E&E background would have overlooked any historical trend that would have prevented this most unfortunate massacre of the bear population.

    As far as hunting carnivorous critters, though I personally don't, I thought the widely accepted philosophy was that you'd better be certain of a kill, or pay the consequences. Nature doesn't suffer fools well, and most ceratinly doesn't tolerate incompetence in the food web. As one philosopher commented, you mess with the bull, you get the horns.....GO BEARS!!!

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 45 weeks ago

    There's more to this - apparently, the man wounded the bear, and so the portion of the Gallatin National Forest that he was in was closed off because of the dangers of a wounded grizzly bear (and they aren't absolutely sure it was a grizzly that attacked). Of course, I've got relevant stories in the newspaper on the black bears as well as this latest grizzly incident.

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 45 weeks ago

    Sometimes you eat the bear, sometimes he eats you!

  • Dry Conditions Blamed For Bear Problems in Grand Teton, Yosemite   6 years 45 weeks ago

    Another bear incident just outside the Yellowstone boundary on Sunday I believe -- some park employee was out HUNTING for black bear when a grizzly decided to go hunting for HIM. Details are on the NPS website if you're interested.

    Final score: Bears 14, Cowboys 0

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 45 weeks ago

    So what's your take on the IPCC's finding that it's 90% likely that humans are causing/have caused observed climate changes?

    I don't think concern about global warming necessarily equates to disdain for modern life; rather, it's founded in disdain of waste and pollution and a concern for those who come after us. And it takes more than giving up one's car to "walk the walk". Fossil fuels are involved in everything we consume and use from food to plastics to telecommunications. It's virtually impossible not to consume fossil fuels in one way or another, but that shouldn't mean that anyone concerned about climate change should be labeled a hypocrite. It's about recognizing a potential problem and working to fix it from the inside; it's not about living in a cave. The system can only be changed from the inside since that is where we all operate.

    And listen, there are far greater reasons in my opinion to wean ourselves from fossil fuels other than global warming including ozone pollution, volatile chemical emissions, 45000+ deaths a year from accidents, wars over oil, oil spills, habitat destruction, and so on. If climate change, actual or possible, is the impetus for making that break, then so be it.

  • Grand Teton Puts Down Another Bear   6 years 45 weeks ago

    So, when do they begin the sensible course of action......close the park until people can act responsibly? Hopefully, the winter snows will come early and often.

  • Private Party At Charlestown Navy Yard Doesn't Lack Alcohol   6 years 46 weeks ago

    I would just like to add that the parks were set aside for the benefit and enjoyement of the people. The parks were meant to be used!!
    Mather and Albright both believed in recreation first, most times at the expense of the resource!! In the begining park service shot wolves (so visitors could see more deer and elk), they fed the bears (so visitors could take their picture), they built large spacious hotels in the most pristine areas (so visitors had a comfortable place to sleep)...
    I'm sure others on this site, can think of others.
    Second, Check it out most of our historical sites have come into the park service system after they failed as private businesses. Local cities and not for private organizations expected the federal government to come in and protect their site. Why do people believe if a private organization is not making money on a site that somehow sticking a park service arrowhead on the site with no operating budget is going to turn things around??
    Well guess what the federal government doesn't have the money, the National Park Service does not have the money to continue bailing out these small nationally insignificant places.
    Why is it the park service keeps crying it doesn't have enough money to protect its 391 sites, congress keeps getting upset with the park service cuz they don't know where the money is going, but yet congress and the park service keep adding more sites to the system??
    My belief is we need to stop relying on the federal government to save all of our recreational, historical, cultural, and natural areas. Everyone from every sector needs to step up to the plate and do their part.
    And on a last note a pet peeve of mine... Law Enforcement Rangers are Police Officers, they carry federal commissions and are authorized to carry firearms, conduct investigations, and make arrests!!

  • Private Party At Charlestown Navy Yard Doesn't Lack Alcohol   6 years 46 weeks ago

    "On an earlier comment, the "guy in the yellow shirt" who stopped a visitor from entering the Navy Yard, that
    was one of the law enforcement fellows...funny they have "POLICE" on the back of their shirt..they wish..."

    From reading above it stated there was one arrest....then who arrested this guy??? I had heard it was one of Park Police Officers. I have seen them arresting drug users before.

  • Judge Orders Cross Removed from Mojave National Preserve   6 years 46 weeks ago

    Lone Hiker, I think your words ring true. Let my email be the first to say there is wisdom in what you have written.

  • Judge Orders Cross Removed from Mojave National Preserve   6 years 46 weeks ago

    Good job Kurt, you have indeed touched a common nerve.

    The cross, be it subtitled Latin or whatever, has through generations become associated with far more than just Christianity. However, in most cases, when initially viewed in virtually any landscape, the primary connotation is one of religion, which is a shame. I too hold no particular religious affiliation, but cannot say that I find this symbol offensive. If the intent of the memorial was religious or meant to inflame, as would be the cast with the broken cross, or whatever stupid symbol is currently in vogue with mideastern terror groups, then indeed removal would be the proper response. But I also agree that the obelisk, flower garden, "eternal" bunsen burner, hall of mirrors or many other alternatives would serve quite well in it's sted.

    Also, let's not make the assumption that the symbol itself represents the hypocracy of those factions that
    use(d) it for their rallying point. Purtians killed out of fear and public subjugation. Cathloics killed to spread Catholicism throughout "pagan" lands. Protestants killed too, as did Baptists, Agnostics, Mormons, Anglicans, Episcopalians, Judaists, and of course, Muslims. But the cross is also a widely accepted tribute to fallen soldiers. along with victims of drunk drivers, genocide, racism, etc. It is a symbol that honors death, strange as that sounds. Nobody needs be reminded that a certain religious leader was NOT the first nor the last nor the only human being put to death on the cross, just the most popular. But I also recall the white cross being utilized as a symbol of peace. Boy will I get e-mails on this one.

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 46 weeks ago

    Amen vink80! I could not have said it better!

    The last time that it was a widely accepted notion of science that nature was something that remains in a fixed and unchanging state was when Aristotle was tutoring a young and impressionable Alexander the Great.

    I'd like to see everyone that is so hell-fired sure that humans are causing global warming to start walking the walk. I'd like to know when you're going to give up your cars and stop using your energy consuming electronic devices and stop taking all those unnecessary treks to national parks using internal combustion power.

    Why don't we all go live in caves again and crap on the ground. This whole issue has more to do with those among us with a deep seated disdain for modern life and the supposed miseries it visits upon poor old Mother Earth. It has little to do with hard science. It has more to do with imposing restrictions on human freedom than with any concrete evidence that it will save the our sacred mother from her delinquent and thoughtless children.

    I'll make a prediction: the earth is going to get cooler in the next ten years. I mean it! The earth is going to be a colder place by 2017. Anyone willing to place a bet? I'm as confident as Julian Simon was in betting Paul Ehrlich back in 1980.

    In the meantime Al Gore needs to stop eating meat (what with all this cow farting going on) and stop traveling by Lear jet. I know, I know, he bought his carbon offsets from the officially sanctioned Church of Environmental Salvation but he really should start setting a better example for those of us who don't have access and the spare cash to tithe to such exalted and rarefied institutions.

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 46 weeks ago

    I'm not particularly enthralled with the prospects for the future either. And to Jr. Ranger, I have six of my own who I am most concerned about, but to claim that the old farts aren't doing anything and the younger generation is spearheading the movement isn't at all accurate. Maybe due to having lived through other global issues, the threat of nuclear meltdown between nations, exploding populations, dwindling resources, and other events have lead a certain segment of the population to what I refer to as a more measured response. Yes, things need to be changed, but as I mentioned, change to what degree, where, and how? First, when you're figuring on changing things globally, it can't in all praticality be done quickly. Mankinds record on our knee-jerk reactions reads like a list of the "Greatest Debacles in the History of Earth", and maybe that is something that more people need to be aware of prior to demanding instant change. Second, we as a country still tend toward this topic as a political, not social issue. Sadly, by the time attitudes change it may indeed be too late. In our system of geovernment, rarely is anything undertaken, no matter how socially important, without profits driving the equation. One possible answer is to learn how to generate billions by cleaning up our collective act, then at least the econimic engine will drive the solution to it's proper end. Lastly, I under NO circumstances suggest that cattle are solely responsible. Methane is a byproduct of numerous processes in our environment. But the study that I referred to was independently commissioned by a "non-political" entity, that is, someone OUTSIDE of this country with no agenda to follow. The numbers are quite staggering in terms of total output, and the reductive capability of this gas is not to be questioned.

    Al Gore is correct in bringing this issue to light, but was hardly the first to promote environmental change. I suggest that he also promote behavioral change, and start walking the walk as he encourages the general public to do. As a leader, you're totally ineffective unless examples are set and followed. Just ask "W"......

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 46 weeks ago


  • Judge Orders Cross Removed from Mojave National Preserve   6 years 46 weeks ago

    It's tricky to respond posts like this (but watch me try anyway :) ). The best I can do I suppose is keep it personal. I'm an atheist. I'm also an occasional visitor to the Mojave preserve and have seen the cross. Am I deeply offended the cross is there? No. I'm regaled by Christian imagery everywhere I look, and quite honestly a bit numb to it.

    Am I offended? Yes.

    Like it or not the Latin cross is a symbol that carries many deep emotions across the entire spectrum, both positive and negative. For me when I see the Latin cross I feel frustration with what I consider to be an irrational, unreasonable, and unsustainable world view. I see crusades and wars. I see witch burnings, intolerance, hypocrisy, bigotry, racism and molestation. This is what I feel and can't be argued. Do I want references to religion (all religions) removed from money, pledges, government facilities and services? Yes. Do I honestly expect to see that? No.

    From a very personal point of view crosses like this bother more than some of the other things because I go to places like the Mojave preserve to get away and recharge, and I don't like the reminder. If it's a war memorial that's wanted let's compromise and put something else up there like a nice black stone obelisk. Or better yet carve one from the native stone that both blends in and stands out. I'll help.

    Longish indulgent personal answer to a short non-personal legal-type question, an essential part of a successful democracy.


  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 46 weeks ago

    Lone Hiker, good points and well taken but that does not satisfy my curiousity why you didn't blame this all on the cockroachs (emiittance of huge amounts of methane gas). In jest!
    However, in all this being said by you, don't you agree that Al Gore has taken the right steps to prepare us for unimaginable consequences of doing NOTHING about global warming. I don't see him as a alarmist in the slightest degree, but as a concerned private citizen who wishes to present the argument that something should be done about global warming. At least he has brought the ball to Bush's court who dribbles away from the issue (and whom has turned a deaf hear...but listens well to corporate money...that is the big polluters!). I have profound grievances against the Bush & Cheney Administration for there inability to work in earnest with world leaders to enact (and mandate) a policy for carbon negative...instead they opt to run the clock out with bureaucratic paper wrangling and public spiel of nonsense on the issue of global warming. Hopefully, the next administration will do a far better job and have the courage and dedication to foster a holistic and comprehensive policy with world leaders on the subject of global warming. I have spent 45 years working outdoors (in the parks) and I see my backyard slowly dying. That's why I truly believe Rachel Carson and Al Gore did something that is RIGHT!

  • Judge Orders Cross Removed from Mojave National Preserve   6 years 46 weeks ago

    Tom, I appreciate your diligence in tracking down the court order. But I would disagree with your analysis that this case is "not about religious symbols at all."

    Indeed, had Mr. Buono not initially complained about the cross in the first place this case would not have taken root. That the latest legal twist stems from an attempt by Congress to have the Park Service divvy up the preserve so as to place the cross on private late is merely an aside that sprung from efforts to keep the cross in place.

    The case's collision over separation of state and church clearly is laid out in the court's initial paragraph:

    Our court previously held that the presence of
    the cross in the Preserve—which consists of more than 90
    percent federally-owned land, including the land where the
    cross is situated—violates the Establishment Clause of the
    United States Constitution. Buono v. Norton, 371 F.3d 543
    (9th Cir. 2004). We affirmed the district court’s judgment permanently
    enjoining the government “from permitting the display
    of the Latin cross in the area of Sunrise Rock in the
    Mojave National Preserve.”

  • GAO: Interior Failed to Provide Park Service With Tools To Cope With Climate Change   6 years 46 weeks ago

    If only practical and effective solutions were that easy to implement. Environmental impact, usually in for form of irreversible damage, is the track record of man-made alterations to local geographies around the nation. Dams generate hydroelectric power in the southwest, at the cost of plant and animal habitats, allowing for exotic species to gain hold and further alter the terrain. Accidental introduction of zebra mussels and Asian carp threaten the eastern waterways. There are too many examples to list, encompassing agriculture sources, exotic plant species and a wide variety of mammalian, avian, aquatic and even bacterial life forms. None of these issues, though well documented, have been effectively managed, despite the agreement of various governing bodies that "something needs to be done before the landscape is forever altered".....and yet, we expect policy makers here to eradicate an issue that is global in origin, and while many of the contributors to the source of the issue simply aren't willing to "adjust" the internal consumption of raw materials that are utilized in developing their economic development?

    Specific to the park system's ability or lack thereof to contemplate and effectively adjust for environmental modifications, in my opinion, no, they aren't equipped in any sense of the word. Financially they haven't the resources or manpower to enact effective changes. Informationally (or scientificially) they haven't the data to plan effectively. Say what you will of the sources, that indeed is NOT the issue. Rate of change, past and anticipated, determine the best course of action, and a bit of research will show that rates vary by location due to multiple factor. So how quickly to act, where to act, and how MUCH to act become a complex issue. The evidence clearly shows some degree of environmental changes, but how the impacted species are responding without intervention is a relatively new and unfortunately poorly researched topic.

    Talking politicians, there's a novel concept. Let's face it, the last time poilticians decided they HAD to do something was in response to the tragedy that was Spet. 11, and we're still living with the remnants of that whole debacle. The joke that is Homeland Security, an ineffective war that refused to target the real issues and ring-leader at the root of the attacks, thousands dead, billions wasted, no end in sight. And you somehow interpret through an opinion on one issue that I align myself with either party of nitwits that foster the spread of world-wide democratic tyranny? Democrat or Republican, you're a loser either way. Bill was no better than George, Ron was no better than Bill, John was no better that Dick. Honestly is not exactly a strong suit up on the Hill. And insofar as representing the constituents, unless there's money to be had, you should know better.

    Finally, the "bogus" science that I represent....I should have known better than to inject chemical processes into this discussion. Mankind is indeed responsible, but to rest the blame SOLELY at the feet or industrial causes is simple not accurate. Kindly put, the largest contributor to the methane gas that is most responsible for the chemical reduction (again, not referring to the overall loss, but the process by which ozone is REDUCED, or molecules are split, chemically speaking) are domestic cattle. You've no idea, during the course of their digestive process, or the conversion of cellulose to enegry, the volumes of this gas are produced and released into the environment. Yes people, cow farts, along with other species of the ruminant family. As these populations have exploded into "third world" areas with the encouragement of the US during the past century, coupled with slash and burn farming techniques, general deforestation, leading to the current situation of the planet's inability to effectively "compost" our man-made gasses, maybe you can get a better sense that this simple solution of reducing one variable of an equation does not balance the equation. The entire point was that if not done carefully, changing on side increases the value of the other. Basic algebra. Now I'm REALLY in trouble.......But I NEVER said that things should remain status quo. And again I never pretended to be a proponent of EITHER side of this issue. Bush and Gore have about as equal an chance at being right. Their motives are both definately questionable, and neither is a shining poster-boy for their team. That is why I encourage your own personal investigation, preferably incorporating multiple sources that are not sponsored by dollars generated from left or right-wing special interest groups. And careful of the G-8 studies, they have a particular stake in this as well. But there are MANY independent international reports done with "good" science, as opposed to my allegedly "bogus" made-in-the-USA science, which merit further reading. The simple fact is there is no quick fix to this situation. Glaciers cannot regenerate overnight, sea temperatures are notoriously fickle, and land masses do not change from grassland to desert in a generation. Action is indeed required, by a measured response is cautioned lest greater damage befall the entire system. If that be the case, then we are indeed, as a species, screwed. THAT is what I'm trying to avoid. And if it be true that we're screwed already, as some would have you believe, then a slow demise should be or goal. Don't turn up the heat and burn the house down just because it's already on fire.

  • Federal Real ID May (Not) Be Required For Park Visit   6 years 46 weeks ago

    What's your phone number? 867-5309? :)

    Jim Macdonald
    The Magic of Yellowstone
    Yellowstone Newspaper
    Jim's Eclectic World