National Park Quiz 99: Native Americans
This quiz was co-authored by Bob Janiskee and John Giorgis.
1. A ceremonial totem pole was commissioned as part of the centennial celebration for
a. Ocmulgee National Monument
b. Pipestone National Monument
c. Sitka National Historical Park
d. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park
2. Located within America's largest Indian reservation, ______ consists entirely of land owned by Native Americans.
a. Aztec Ruins National Monument
b. Canyon de Chelly National Monument
c. Petroglyph National Monument
d. Chaco Culture National Historical Park
3. The ______ Indians have strong ancestral ties to Capitol Reef National Park.
4. Established in the 1970s to preserve archeological remains at an important Native American cultural site, ______ has never been opened to the public.
a. Ocmulgee National Monument
b. Hohokam Pima National Monument
c. Aztec Ruins National Monument
d. Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument
5. Eight Indian tribes hold rights to hunt Roosevelt elk in
a. Point Reyes National Seashore
b. Redwood National and State Parks
c. Theodore Roosevelt National Park
d. Olympic National Park
6. Seminole Rest in Canaveral National Seashore preserves a ______ of Native American origin.
a. ceremonial center
b. pre-Columbian town
c. trash heap
d. trading route rest stop
7. The main visitor center at ______ is named in honor of a Native American.
a. Badlands National Park
b. Mesa Verde National Park
c. Congaree National Park
d. Petrified Forest National Park
8. More Native American lives were lost in the battle commemorated at ____ than on any other battlefield in the National Park System.
a. Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
b. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
c. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
d. Washita Battlefield National Historic Site
9. In a 1847 attack that was dubbed a massacre, Cayuse and Umtilla Indians killed 13 whites at a site now preserved within
a. San Antonio Missions National Historical Park
b. Whitman Mission National Historic Site
c. Tonto National Monument
d. George Rogers Clark National Historical Park
10. Captain Jack's Stronghold, a "natural fortress" defended by Modoc Indians during the Modoc Indian War of 1872-73, is preserved in
a. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site
b. Lassen Volcanic National Park
c. Nez Perce National Historical Park
d. Lava Beds National Monument
Extra Credit Question:
11. The American Indian Scouting Association has named an annual award for youth service in honor of Francis X. Guardipee, the first Native American national park ranger. In which national park was Guardipee employed?
Super Bonus Question:
12. Listed below are some national parks with Indian reservations adjacent to, situated within, or surrounding them. A list of Indian tribes (some names abbreviated) is also provided. Match each park with the correct tribe. Since not all tribal names form correct matches, you will have some tribes "left over" after you complete this matching exercise. Give yourself two points if you match them all correctly and one point if you miss fewer than three.
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore
Badlands National Park
Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Death Valley National Park
Everglades National Park
Glacier National Park
Grand Canyon National Park
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
Mesa Verde National Park
Olympic National Park
(1) c -- Sitka National Historical Park, the oldest national park in Alaska, was proclaimed (as a National Monument) on March 23, 1910. To help celebrate the park's centennial and honor Tlingit cultural traditions, a Centennial Totem Pole was commissioned in 2010 and erected at the site in May 2011.
(2) b -- Canyon de Chelly National Monument in northeastern Arizona consists entirely of Navajo Tribal Trust Land situated within the Navajo Nation, America's largest Indian reservation.
(3) a -- The Koosharem Band of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah has strong ancestral ties to the land now preserved in Capitol Reef National Park. Ute nomads also traveled through and intermittently used sites in this area of southern Utah.
(4) b -- Although established in 1972, and now counted as a unit of the National Park System, Hohokam Pima National Monument in southwestern Arizona has never been opened to the public.
(5) d -- In Olympic National Park, the Quinault Indian Nation, the Makah, and six other tribes may legally harvest elk. The park's elk are Roosevelt elk (aka Olympic elk), a subspecies found in the Pacific Northwest rainforests.
(6) c -- Seminole Rest in Canaveral National Seashore preserves the remains of a trash heap (midden) left by Native Americans. This old trash heap mainly consists of mollusk shells, but also contains animal bones, lithic debris, plant material, potsherds, human excrement, and other materials.
(7) a -- The Ben Reifel Visitor Center at Badlands National Park was named after the first congressman from the Sioux Nation. After serving in Congress, Reifel worked as consultant and Special Assistant for Indian Programs to the Director of the National Park Service.
(8) a -- Horseshoe Bend National Military Park in east-central Alabama preserves the site of the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend, the decisive battle of the Creek War. More than 550 Red Stick Creeks were killed on the main battlefield and perhaps as many as 300 more were shot or drowned while trying to escape across the Tallapoosa River.
(9) b -- Whitman Mission National Historic Site on the Walla Walla River in Washington was the site of an Indian attack on November 29, 1847 that killed 13 whites, including prominent missionaries Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. Although the incident was labeled a "massacre," nearly four dozen whites survived the attack.
(10) d -- Captain Jack's Stronghold is in northern California's Lava Beds National Monument. During the Modoc Indian War (aka Lava Beds War, 1872-1873), this area of incredibly rugged volcanic landforms was defended by around 60 Modoc Indians who were defeated only after a months-long siege by a large US Army force.
(11) Francis X. Guardipee, America's first Native American national park ranger, was a Blackfeet who worked at Glacier National Park during 1933-1947.
(12) The correct matches are:
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore -- Chippewa
Badlands National Park -- Oglala Sioux
Canyon de Chelly National Monument -- Navajo
Death Valley National Park -- Timbisha Shoshone
Everglades National Park -- Miccosukee
Glacier National Park -- Blackfeet
Grand Canyon National Park -- Havasupai
Great Smoky Mountains National Park -- Cherokee
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument -- Crow
Mesa Verde National Park -- Ute
Olympic National Park -- Hoh
Grading: 9 or 10 correct, rest on your laurels; 7 or 8 correct, pretty darn good; 6 correct, passable fair; 5 or fewer correct, nothing to brag about.